adulteration

Possible causes of kratom-related liver toxicities and deaths

Herb-induced liver injury (HILI) is “a rare adverse reaction associated with the consumption of herbal products”. A review published in 2020 found 12,068 cases of herb-induced liver injury worldwide, as well as 46,266 cases of liver injury induced by the use of drugs (Teschke et al., 2021). Herbal and dietary supplements contribute to 20% of …

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